Integrated systems of monitoring and controlling wastewater, the quality and security of textile products commercialized in Romania and Bulgaria”- ENVICONTEH” code- 129
- PRIORITY AXIS 2: ENVIRONMENT – Sustainable use and protection of natural resources and environment, promotion of an efficient risk management in the cross border region.
- KEY AREA OF INTERVENTION: 2.1- Development of joint management systems for environmental protection.
- PROJECT OBJECTIVES:
- To establish a cross border specific joint strategy on short, medium and long term for environmental protection;
- To develop joint systems for environmental protection monitoring and control;
- To develop joint information and promotion materials referring to the cross border environmental protection
- Lead Partner – the National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather
- P2 – Academy of Economic Studies – Research Centre for Regional Analyses and Policies
- P3 – Business Support Centre for Small and Medium Enterprises, Ruse
- P4 – Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ruse
- PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION TARGET GROUP:
- Textile companies in Technological and Industrial Park GIURGIU NORD SA –Romania;
- Textile companies in Ruse-Bulgaria
- To establish a cross border specific joint strategy on short, medium and long term for environmental protection
- To develop joint systems for environmental protection monitoring and control
- To develop joint information and promotion materials referring to environmental protection
PROJECT MANAGER - FLOAREA PRICOP
Creating and implementing a complex system for environment monitoring and control
WASTEWATER MONITORING AND CONTROL SISTEMS
The monitoring and control of the water quality parameters over the technological flow continued in the project, in order to create a database that was already made and also in order to find solutions.
- In order to monitor and have a complex control of the finishing processes and of the wastewater treatment in the enterprises and at Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park (PTIGN), work meetings took place at PTIGN offices with the participation of the project team members from INCDTP Bucharest, personnel in charge with environmental protection from enterprises and PTIGN and representatives of SC ICSI Ramnicu Valcea – wastewater analysis services provider.
- Monitoring and control continued to be conducted by wastewater sampling at SC UCO Tesatura and SC Pamartex companies on the technological stages of the process (washing, dyeing), and at Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park from:
- Deep wells 1 and 2, water tower (water used for industrial technological processes);
- Waste water treatment plant on treatment phases (plant input, phase 1, aeration module, phase 2, plant output);
- Sludge samples from the wastewater treatment plant were taken and analysed.
- Laboratory testing was conducted for physical – mechanical and chemical parameters, in accordance with monitoring and control procedures elaborated for this activity and with national and international standards in force.
- Comparative analysis of the quality indicators was conducted over the entire monitoring period in order to establish optimum treatment recipe.
- Visits were organized to various enterprises in the Bulgarian cross border section Ruse together with partners BSC Ruse and RCCI Ruse: at “Fashco” in Byala and “Freshtex” in Popovo for wastewater sampling, evaluation of the impact of existing finishing technological processes on the water pollution in the water treatment plants in order to elaborate solutions for the pollution reduction of the waters discharged in natural effluents (ex. Yantra river, Danube)
- Samples of waste water were taken from the wastewater treatment plants on technological treatment phases at enterprises that are the target group in Bulgaria “FRESHTEX POPOVO si FASHCO BYALA” and they were analysed in accordance with monitoring and control procedures elaborated in this activity by the project leader.
- The software for the wastewater quality indicators was finalized in order to have a complex monitoring and an efficient management environment.
- Processing of the data obtained from the monitoring of waste water treatment quality indicators for the determination of wastewater treatment efficiency.
To implement the monitoring and control system, information and training sessions were organized at the target group in Giurgiu Nord cross border region.
- In order to modernize wastewater treatment processes in the enterprises’ wastewater treatment plants, depending on the wastewater quality indicators obtained as a result of the analyses performed on the modules of the wastewater treatment plant, solutions for the upgrading of the wastewater treatment installation at PTIGN were proposed and implemented in this activity, including the interposition of the aeration system with prominent results in the improvement of wastewater treatment degree with 20-70%.
- Technological solutions were elaborated as a basis for simulation, control and automation of the wastewater pre-treatment and treatment (SPEAU, SEAU) in the textile industry, these solutions being applied by investment in new programmes for the modernization of commercial enterprises.
- To implement the efficient solutions obtained at the target group in Romania referring to the decrease of wastewater pollution, INCDTP organized together with the Bulgarian partners work visits and training sessions at the headquarters of commercial companies in Bulgaria in order to monitor wastewater quality indicators and to apply wastewater Training themes were set for the training activity in Giurgiu, brochures were elaborated for the project dissemination and acquisition procedures started for the corresponding services, in collaboration with the project partners.
Furthermore, offers for the equipment acquisition were invited from various producers of instruments for the measurement and control of wastewater quality and tender specifications were elaborated for the acquisition.
- New environment-friendly technological solutions for the wastewater treatment processes in order to reduce the risk factors for the environment were elaborated and personalized for Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park:
- Upgrading of the wastewater treatment installations,
- Upgrading of the wastewater treatment flow from Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park’s treatment plant based on complex analyses of the existing situation referring to:
- Current wastewater treatment flow;
- Auditing of the wastewater treatment phases;
- Existing endowment;
- Physical – mechanical and chemical analyses of the wastewater quality parameters on the treatment phases compared to the values admitted in the national norms corroborated with the European norms;
- Wastewater treatment degree on treatment phases.
- The dissemination of project results is ongoing through the project website, participation in various scientific events, brochures etc.
At the conference entitled «Increase of competitiveness in Romania – Bulgaria cross border region through innovation and technological transfer” Eng. Florina Pricop presented the results obtained in ENVICONTEH project, both as an oral presentation, a poster and information materials.
The event was organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the National Authority for Scientific Research, the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture Mehedinti and the Foundation for Democracy, Culture and Liberty – Calarasi branch, on June 29–30, 2012 in Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti county, and was attended by: EU Commissary Johannes Hahn, Mr. Andrei Marga, Foreign Affairs Minister, Mr. Eduard Hellvig, Minister, Mrs. Rovana Plumb, Minister and representatives of ministries and institutions in ROMANIA and BULGARIA involved in the implementation of Cross border Projects.
At the work meetings organized with the partners, with the target group in Romania and with companies in Bulgaria, project related technical-scientific studies were presented together with the results of the experiments conducted and the technological solutions elaborated by INCDTP that are efficient in reducing the pollution of wastewater and respect the environmental community acquis in the RO – BG cross border region.
During September 27 – 28, 2012, at Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park (PTIGN), a session of information and training was organized for the enterprises in the park, referring to the wastewater monitoring and control systems.
This training session was attended by over 20 persons from Romania and Bulgaria - engineers, technicians and management personnel from companies involved in the project. The training sessions were conducted by Dr. Eng. Corina Moga, Eng. Floarea Pricop – project manager and mathematician Mihai Stan.
The training session started with a short presentation referring to the activities conducted in the project, conducted by the project manager – Eng. Floarea Pricop.
During the two day session, participants were informed referring to:
- Monitoring of the process parameters of the wastewater treatment plants;
- Pollutants – solutions for textile wastewater treatment;
- Solutions to control the indicators and methods to correct their values applicable to PTIGN;
- “WASTEWATER DB” database management programme.
This activity was organized by the National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Bucharest, project coordinating partner.
Snapshots from the first training session
An exposition of the ecological products manufactured by the companies functioning in PTING was organized and it was visited by the participants.
A second training session was organized in Giurgiu, between 15-17 of October 2013, also at Giurgiu Nord Technological and Industrial Park (PTIGN). The subjects presented by the trainers included:
• Treatment technologies for textile industry wastewater and proposals for the automatization of the wastewater plants
• Procedures regarding the activity of monitoring, control and quality ensurance of the wastewater resulted from the textile companies.
• The software program for managing the database “WASTEWATER DB”.
Snapshots from the second training session
The training sessions were conducted by eng. Aneta CHIVOIU, eng. Bogdan NASARIMBA-GRECESCU and mathematician Mihai Stan.
Among the 40 participants attaining to this second training we would like to note the presence of representatives of the local Environmental Agency, as well as other participants from various companies.
A third training session took place in Bulgaria, in 3 different locations, in order to reach more professionals from the textile finishing sector, as well as other sectors. The period of the training was 5, 6 and 7 November 2012 – in POPOVO, RUSE and BYALA – Bulgaria. A total number of 35 participants attended the lectures, whose subjects were:
- Pollutants affecting the quality of wastewater from the textile industry. Monitoring and control systems of the wastewater quality indicators within the Romanian - Bulgarian cross-border area.
- Technological solutions for the treatment of wastewater generated by the textile industry and monitoring and automation systems of the treatment processes.
Other dissemination events were held in 3 cities in Bulgaria, namely Ruse – 11.12.2012; Dobrich – 12.12.2012 and Pleven – 13.12.2012. Representatives of the Regional laboratories responsible for the water protection in the respective region, Regional inspectorate for the waters protection, the Basin directorate – Pleven, the different water offices WERE also invited. During the events the results achieved up to this moment in the project were presented as well as the mobile device for detection of dangerous substances in the traded textile products.
Organizing an International Conference referring to “Disseminating the results of the project and the presentation of the guide regarding specific polluting factors generated by companies from the cross border area and regarding technological solutions to limit pollution”.
The Conference took place at the “ANGEL KANCEV” University, between 21-22.02.2013 and enjoyed the presence of 63 Romanian and Bulgarian participants.
Snapshots from the international conference
Most of the participants at the conference were also beneficiaries of the technological solutions elaborated and implemented within the ENVICONTEH project.
There were invited and they participated - collaborators from ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, representatives from other institutions: Giurgiu Environmental Regional Agency, ICECHIM Bucharest and other representatives from textile industry companies, NGOs from ecological domain, etc.
Also, at the Conference attended:
- from the CBC Calarasi, representatives of the Technical Secretariat, the economic and technical monitors of the project.
- representatives that appertain to the Romanian Target Group from the North-Giurgiu Technological and Industrial Park (managers and specialists) and from the companies located on the Platform;
- representatives that belong to the Bulgarian Target Group from the companies that have been monitored within the project;
- representatives of the partners (AES Bucharest, BSC-SME Ruse, RCCI Ruse), responsibles and personnel interested in the topics of the Conference.
Technological solutions to improve environmental protection stipulated in the Guide launched at the Conference, lead to achieve the project goals materialized in the development of modern systems for wastewater quality monitoring and control, establishing a common strategy in the short, medium and long term that is specific to this area, through knowledge and compliance with EU legislation in force.
The conclusion of all participants was that the Guide is a useful tool in the textile industry.
Dissemination materials contained in presentation folders were: brochures that address topics related to monitoring, legislation, technology solutions, modern portable device for detecting pollutants from textile materials; CDs containing all materials in electronic format, including guide in Romanian and English language; user manual for presentation and operation of the database " WASTEWATER DB".
SOURCES OF POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE FINISHING
Textile finishing can be defined as the multitude of operations (mechanical, chemical, biochemical) that ensure the improvement of textile properties, that is their aspect, comfort, durability and functionality. Most of the textile finishing operations can be effected over the entire technological flow on: fibre, sliver, yarn, fabric, knit and garment; however, finishing applied to fabrics or knits is predominant.
In a simplified form, a textile finishing technological flow is represented in Figure 1:
Figure 1: Technological flow
In Giurgiu - Ruse cross border region the correlation between the main pollutants generated by technological phases was studied (from companies on the PTIGN platform and from companies in Bulgaria: Fashco - Byala and Freshtex – Popovo) with influences over quality indicators of wastewater and the treatment methods in wastewater treatment plants in conformity with National and European Norms.
The correlations between technology stages of textile processing, polluting factors, their influences on quality wastewater indicators is presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Correlations between technology stages of textile processing, polluting factors, their influences on quality indicators of wastewater and wastewater treatment methods
Technology stages generating polluting factors
Polluting factors and their effect on wastewater
Influences on quality indicators of wastewater
Methods to remove pollutants
Starch, Polysaccharides, CMC, APV Polyacrilates
COD, BOD, TSS
-physical-chemical treatment, ozonation,
- biological treatment, filters, membranes
Dust and fly, various waxes, oils and paraffin
It does not directly influences the water indicators in this stage
PRELIMINARY PREPARATION (Desizing, alkaline boiling)
surfactants, complexing agents, oils, sizing products, fibres, various waxes, mineral or vegetal impurities, enzyme products
COD, BOD, TSS, pH
-physical-chemical treatment, ozonation, biological treatment, filters,
Chlorine or oxygen-based oxidizing agents (chlorite, hydrosulphite, thiosulphite, surfactants and complexing agents)
COD, BOD, TSS, pH, sulphites, sulphates, chlorine
- physical-chemical treatment, ozonation, biological treatment, filters,
Wastes of sulfur dyes
Wastes of indigosol dyes
Chemical auxiliaries, surfactants, complexing agents, heavy metals (for dyeing with metal complex dyes), dispersing agents, mordants
pH, color, TSS, metals, salts, temperature, COD, BOD, metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Fe, Ni), sulphates, sulphites, accelerating substances,
-physical-chemical treatment, ozonation
-biological treatment, filters, membranes
-photocatalysis, advanced treatment
R ROSS DYEING
Wastes of sulphur dyes
Wastes of indigosol dyes
Chemical auxiliaries, surfactants, complexing agents, heavy metals (for dyeing with metal complex dyes)
pH, TSS, metals, salts, temperature, water volume
COD, BOD, fixed residue
-physical-chemical treatment, ozonation
-biological treatment, filters, membranes
- photocatalysis, advanced treatment
WASHING / RINSING
Wastes of sulphur dyes
Wastes of indigosol dyes
Influence in lower %, COD, BOD, water volume, fixed residue
- physical-chemical treatment, ozonation
-biological treatment, filters, membranes
- photocatalysis, advanced treatment
Starching products (natural and synthetic polymers)
BOD (biochemical oxygen consumption), COD, TSS
- advanced treatment
In Giurgiu-Ruse cross-border region the correlation between the main pollutants generated by technological phases was studied (from companies on the PTIGN platform and from companies in Bulgaria: Fashco-Byala and Freshtex–Popovo) with influences over quality indicators of wastewater and the treatment methods in wastewater treatment plants in conformity with National and European Norms.
Following are presented schematically the correlations between technology stages of textile processing, polluting factors, their influences on quality indicators of wastewater and wastewater treatment methods. These correlations are valid for most textile companies.
- WASTEWATER MONITORING AND CONTROL SISTEMS, APLICABLE IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Water represents a heterogeneous multiphase open system that makes an exchange of energy and substances with the neighboring mediums (aquatic basins, atmosphere, and bottom sediments) and with the biologic component. Water is subject also to direct anthropogenic pollution, given the fact that is used extensively in industry, agriculture and everyday life. We say that the water is polluted, when its qualities have been degraded, disturbing aquatic life and becoming dangerous to humans. In short, water pollution may be defined as the process amending its quality due to human activity or as a result of natural phenomena.
The study of water pollution is very important and has as final aim achieving some quantitative and qualitative prognosis models as well as establishing certain programs for optimizing the investigation on the environment. The approach to a pollution problem involves:
- Collection and processing of the information;
- Construction and use of forecasting models;
- Verify how the forecast is made.
Collection and processing of the information implies:
- Identifying the studied system;
- Recording the numeric information;
- Structuring the non-numeric (qualitative) information;
- Optimizing the information and the control.
Monitoring the parameters in the treatment processes represents an essential activity within the textile industry wastewater treatment plants, being closely connected to the environment monitoring in general. The purpose of monitoring is to monitor the degree of compliance with the legislation by monitoring water quality parameters out of the wastewater treatment and purification processes, to track the functioning and efficiency by monitoring treatment parameters.
Monitoring the water quality is performed for testing if it’s fit for use (drinkable water, irrigation water, industrial water etc.) and secondly for assessing environmental impact (so-called impact-monitoring).
Monitoring the water quality is a process of analysis, interpretation and communication towards the decision making factors and to the population, about the physio-chemical, biological and microbiological water properties. The monitoring system has to be flexible and adjusted to the local, national or global needs.
The water quality monitoring system is a subsystem of the general environment monitoring one. For developing such system a study is performed, whose main elements are:
- Establishing the monitoring objectives;
- Describing the area to be monitored;
- The type of information needed and the method of obtaining them (variables to be measured, sample types, places of collection, placement of sensors for automatic measurements etc.);
- The frequency of samples collection and the time needed for their offline analysis;
- Estimation of resources needed (human, financial etc.);
CONCLUSIONS ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WASTEWATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN THE DATA BASE OF PTIGN SEWAGE TREATMENT STATION BY STAGES AND COMPARED TO THE CURRENT NATIONAL STANDARDS ALIGNED TO THE EUROPEAN NORMS
From the experimental data, presented in detail in the report for the Technological and industrial parc Giurgiu North, following the chemical treatment and flocculation stage in the reaction basin, a better pH control is need it and also a pH correction in the second stage of treatment.
For the pH monitoring and control in the second stage of settling the system must be equipped with a portable pH adjustment pH probe integrated automatic transmission opportunity of operating parameters.
Installation comprises the adjustment controller and parameters display, diaphragm metering pump, on-line pH probe with transmission cable. Adjustment controller can display local pH values and can transmit unified signal 4 to 20 mA to the monitoring system.
The dosing pump may operate either manually or by adjusting the stroke length of the membrane between 0 - 100%, or by adjusting the pulsation frequency between 10-100% within 10%, as well as automatically.
In automatic mode, metering will be done by linear scaling of the signal from the probe, the pump unified signal receiving 4-20 mA signal from the pH controller.
It is also proposed the monitoring and automation of this process, solutions contained in the "Technical expertise on technology modernization solutions sewage treatment plant Technological and Industrial Park Giurgiu Nord".
The proposed solution consists in lowering the value of this parameter by injecting sulfuric acid using a metering pump that PTIGN purchase a pH meter and you will be placed at the end of stage II treatment.
- The solution proposed was taken over by PTIGN and is being implemented by the park's own investment.
DESIGNING AND ACHIEVING THE WASTEWATER QUALITY INDICATORS DATABASE
The data base for storage and management of the data collected from the wastewater from the textile industry is software product accomplished with Visual Fox language program version 6. The product has a friendly interface (fig. 4), easy to use even by a regular user.
Fig. 4 Main menu bar
The actual database itself consists of 6 work files (5 nomenclatures and 1 basic file containing the data collected), whose functionalities will be presented further:
1. NOMFIRM.dbf - nomenclature of companies (Romanian and Bulgarian), consists in 2 fields (code associated to the company ex. RO1 for the first Romanian company, RO2 for the second Romanian company etc., similar for Bulgaria - BG1) and respectively the company name (fig. 5.7).
Fig. 5.7 Companies Nomenclator – window for managing the companies data
Fig. 5.8 Nomenclator of the physical and chemical indicators
Its objective is to make the calculations that synthesize the monitoring (highlighting the physical and chemical indicators that exceed the admitted value, their statistics in time, the extreme values that are not within the limits set by norms etc.) of the process. The approach of such a subject requires a minimum representative volume of data (statistically representative samples; at present this monitoring software product is under test). A part of the results that are certain will be presented. The results to be obtained will be presented, taking as a basis the results presented in the previous chapter.
A. Water pollutants – the programme allows the management of information referring to water pollutants. The window makes a selection in the followed pollutants database.
B. Quality conditions related to water pollutants - the programme allows the management of information referring to the quality conditions of the water pollutants. Practically, this comes to highlighting the values of the pollutants analyzed that are within normal limits and of those which exceed these limits.
C. Tests (measurements) of water pollutants – the programme allows to collect and to update the information referring to the measurements or tests of the water quality. The window that is activated after choosing this option was presented in the previous chapter (VALINDFC.dbf work file).
D. Water pollution – average values – the programme allows to calculate average values of the samples tested for a set of measurements (depending on the company, sampling location etc.) of wastewater and pollutant.
E. Tests – exceeded values - the programme allows the access to a data collection, in view of the analysis and evaluation, by means of data sets that were gathered in the companies, sampling locations and pollutants. Values that exceed the alert threshold are highlighted and compared to the maximum admissible concentration and to the exceptionally admitted. From the data collection only the exceeded values are extracted. The value of the risk is calculated as an average of the exceeded values. The highlighting of the exceeded values and the calculation of the risk factors are effected on both the whole period for which data exists and for a period specified by the user between the start and the end time.
G. Statistics - the programme allows a synthesis referring to the data collection for the set, pollutant type and pollutant chosen. The values that exceed each of the three thresholds (alert threshold, maximum admissible concentration and exceptionally admissible concentration) will be highlighted.
The following will be calculated:
• Total number of tests (measurements) existing in the data collection associated with the set;
• Number of tests (measurements) with values exceeding the three thresholds;
• Probability to exceed the value for each of the thresholds;
• Value of risk as an average of values exceeded;
• The highest value measured.
ACCOMPLISHING THE MONITORING SYSTEM
The monitoring system is the component part of the information system making the data collection, transmission, storage and processing. It is a very complex system, which integrates into a well-defined organizational framework with specialized personnel.
Elements of a monitoring system can be grouped into the following components:
- technical part or hardware;
- system of programs or software;
- human resources and organizational framework.
Technical part or hardware is the totality of data collection, transmission and processing, in which the electronic computer plays a central role.
Hardware components of a monitoring system
PROPOSALS FOR THE MODERNIZATION OF TREATMENT INSTALLATION OF THE TEXTILE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES
In order to improve wastewater treatment technologies in the Giurgiu North Technological and Industrial Park, a survey was conducted on the degree of automation and the technological monitoring. They were gradually analyzed the functionality and integrity of the treatment plant facilities, all aimed at achieving a proposal for upgrading the automation and monitoring facilities.
Water quality monitoring system is a subsystem of the overall automation and will be dimensioned having regard to the following aspects:
- establishing monitoring objectives;
- description of the area to be subject to monitoring;
- type of information required and how to obtain this information (variables to be measured, sample types, sampling location, location sensors for automatic measurements, etc.);
- sampling frequency and the time needed to perform off-line analysis;
- estimation of the necessary resources (human, financial, etc.).
Monitoring of water quality is a process of analysis, interpretation and communication to policy makers and the public about the physico-chemical, biological and microbiological water properties. The monitoring system must be flexible and tailored to the local, national or global needs.
Depending on the information available, some systems and monitoring programs are designed to operate in the long term and provide a large volume of results, others are focused on one goal and for a short period of time. To provide clarity and effectiveness of a monitoring system, it is necessary to specify monitoring objectives. Objectives can be general, without initial detailed sub-objectives or by having detailed objectives.
In order to achieve its objectives by implementing automated monitoring system were taken into account following:
- the monitoring location: Giurgiu North Technological and Industrial Park;
- the purpose of achieving the automation and monitoring: retechnologization of the plant, automatic operation of water supply facilities, chemical dosing, monitoring parameters online dispatcher, managing and storing a database of plant operation, quality assurance of the water discharged;
- information acquired in the field of water quality using gauges and control every step of cleansing;
- information on the human and financial resources necessary for monitoring;
- whom are intended to receive the data and information obtained through monitoring and how these data will be used (for pollution control decisions for the development of standards for warning - alarm to complement the knowledge base).
Currently are in full development monitoring systems with multiple objectives, which converge to the national monitoring programs, which must take into account how current and future water use national sources of pollution present and future, of global methods of pollution control, geological conditions and water categories, etc.
PROPOSALS FOR THE AUTOMATION OF THE PTIGN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
Upgrading plant targets the existing installations wich may be modernized as well as acquiring new installation for process automation and monitoring. The automation systems will facilitate the work of operating personnel by operating the process and monitoring facilities will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the process flow by installing new measuring points with modern transducers.
Automation of the current installations
Existing power plants have a high degree of wear and electrical hazard in operation. For this reason they require partial or total replacement.
PROPOSALS FOR THE MONITORING OF THE PTIGN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
To achieve the proposals of the treatment flow modernization, wastewater quality parameters are also taken into account in the inlet and outlet of the wastewater treatment plant.
Values of wastewater quality indicators are essential for achieving any proposals for the treatment flow modernization. The results of wastewater tests (performed by INCDTP) show occasional excesses of values allowed for the following parameters:
- CBO5 and CCOCr.
Calcium hydroxide introduced into the reaction chamber leads primarily to the removal of dyes from wastewater. As a side effect it also leads to increased pH. For this reason in order to correct this value the use of a pH correction stage is proposed. Sulphuric acid can be used as neutralizing agent.
A proposal for the location of the 2nd reaction chamber is at the end of the 2nd stage of mechanical treatment. This location is proposed because between the first reaction chamber, where calcium hydroxide is inserted and the second stage there must be a sufficient space. Calcium hydroxide should not be neutralized immediately because there is a risk that dyes from wastewater will not be removed. Moreover, after the second reaction chamber there are 2 basins buried with a large enough volume for this reaction. In this place the neutralization of alkaline water can take place.
Introduction of sulphuric acid can have a double role: it can also react with heavy metals found in the mass of wastewater and can form salts which are afterwards extracted as sludge. In this respect the use of a sludge collecting system from the last 2 basins that are buried is recommended.
High values of CBO5 şi CCOCr are caused also by incomplete elimination of detergents. Detergents are removed by strong aeration and foam formation at the free surface of water. In this respect, by the current guide, we propose the implementation in the second treatment of fine bubble aeration system. Oxygen contained by air bubbles will lead to oxidation / decomposition of organic detergents, which can then be evacuated as sludge from the basin foundation plate. Foam is collected from the surface with existing skimmer as part of the second stage. A fine bubble aeration system is necessary as mass transfer of oxygen from the air in wastewater mass is higher.
Implementation of previously described solutions does not lead to high investment costs. The pH adjustment system will be automated, so that when the allowed limit is exceeded, the system shall automatically adjust the amount of reagent introduced into the wastewater mass.
In the event of PTIGN future business expansion and increase of the amount of suspended solids the use of some sieves or automated bar screens can be taken into consideration.
Sludge management in the wastewater treatment plant can be also improved through the acquisition of a modern equipment for dewatering (belt filter or sludge centrifugal machine).
SCADA monitoring system within PITGN
Selection of monitoring points takes into account significant point sources, appropriate quality monitoring points of environmental factors, (in our case: monitoring of wastewater before and after treatment) and monitoring of critical process parameters. Point sources of emissions of pollutants that are considered significant in terms of the possible impact on the environment and those that require the existence of pollution reduction measures to meet acceptable emission levels should be monitored. Monitoring points were determined taking into account the dispersion modeling results and the location of vulnerable receptors. In addition to monitoring emissions, monitoring program consider critical process those parameters that can have a significant impact on the environment, where operating conditions are abnormal process which may result in exceedances of emission limits .
It can be said that the implementation of an automation system in the treatment plant PTIGN can save energy and functioning within the parameters imposed by NTPA rules.
The project continued the monitoring and control of water quality parameters throughout the technological process for creating the database and management program called WASTEWATER DB database that will be used in textile companies equipped with treatment plants.
The database programme of the ENVICONTEH project was named WASTEWATER DB, and it is destined fro the use of the textile companies that have a treatment plant.
WASTEWATER DB software tool structure resulted from a systemic analysis performed at several businesses in the textile industry in the border area RO - BG (Giurgiu Industrial Park, UCO, Parmatex SA), where experiments were conducted on the environmental impact due to water pollution discharged from textile finishing operations, analyzing the physico-chemical quality compared to national and the European Union norms.
From the detailed experimental data presented in Technical Report is obvious that there is necessary the control, monitoring and correcting the pH in second settling station.
The proposed solution was adopted by PTIGN and is currently in use.
Also within the PTIGN wastewater treatment plant was done in the earlier stages of the project a coarse bubble aeration system. Following the experiments and conducted weekly monitoring parameters and test results are recommended upgrading the aeration system by generating fine bubbles. This aeration system would lead to better removal of detergents shows higher values in some periods but not exceeding the value of the NTPA.
Conclusions on comparative analysis of wastewater quality parameters included in the database of the PTIGN wastewater treatment by stages, compared to the national regulations in force correlated to European regulations have highlighted:
- necessity for the implementation of modern methods to monitor and control quality parameters of wastewater treatment plants;
- location of all walks of epuare of sensors and transducers to measure parameters in wastewater treatment;
- automation of existing facilities through new solutions;
- modernization of treatment technologies;
- visualizing and controling wastewater quality parameters using modern equipment analysis and control of wastewater treatment plants.
The advantages of innovative monitoring systems consist of computing the values of the main indicators of quality in real time in order to take appropriate decisions on the management of water resources:
- Warning if certain indicators have been exceeded it and the possibility of fast correction;
- Warning in case of accidental pollution;
Automatic classification of data in real time in a category of state water quality monitoring section which recommends default recovery options in different use or reuse in production processes, activities related to monitoring environmental factors become more attractive create attractive elements from potential entrepreneurs and investors.
Our solutions support the institutions responsible for emergency management from the local to the European level.
- technical advantage resulting from high-tech solution that reduces the time taken for information on the occurrence of events with negative environmental impact;
- operational advantage materializes during decision-making and action that may be salutary in reducing environmental impact.
Considering the many facilities in the data analysis and forecasting decisions, the positive impact it is obvious through reducing the consumption of material and reagents, labor and expenses for better management of water resources. These elements are key factors of how the new solutions developed and proposed in the project ENVICONTEH could be implemented, while reducing costs for proper water resource management.